Andrew Carnegie founded the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust to address the changing needs of the people of the United Kingdom and Ireland.
One of the richest men to have ever lived, the Carnegie story is a rags to riches tale about a boy born in Dunfermline, Scotland who emigrated to the United States with his family, and made his fortune from the steel industry. He is well-known for his philanthropic legacy and there are over twenty Trusts bearing his name today.
Sir Horace Plunkett was a Carnegie Trustee from 1913 until his death in 1932, and played a pivotal role in the development of the Trust’s Irish policies.
Born in 1854, Sir Horace was the third son of Lord Dunsany, an Irish peer. After Oxford, he spent time in the USA but returned to Ireland on his father’s death in 1889. He was interested in the survival of the Irish farmer, and in 1894 founded the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society.
He championed Irish projects and represented the Trust in Ireland: the Trustees relied heavily on him in decisions concerning any of their Irish projects. He was a pioneer in the development of agricultural cooperatives and encouraged the Trust to expand its interest in rural communities.
In 1919 Sir Horace founded the Plunkett Foundation which continues to support rural communities through community ownership and advice. The Plunkett Foundation has worked closely with the Trust, particularly in relation to the Trust’s work on rural community development.
For more information on the Plunkett Foundation visit their website here.
Edward Bruce, the 10th Earl of Elgin and 14th Earl of Kincardine, was one of the original trustees appointed in 1913, and served until his death in November 1968 at the age of 87.
One of the leading Scotsmen of his time, the Earl of Elgin was associated with a wide range of public activities and served as Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for the Colonies between 1905 and 1908. He fought in the First World War and later took up a position as director of the Royal Bank of Scotland.
He was Chair of the Trust from 1923-1946. He had a particularly long-lasting relationship with Newbattle Abbey College and the National Central Library, both of which were beneficiaries of the Trust during his time as chair.
Image: Lord Elgin presenting the key of the National Central Library to King George V
John Ross was the legal advisor to Andrew Carnegie and a good friend. Ross worked for many years as Clerk and Treasurer to Dunfermline District Council. In 1921 he was knighted in recognition of contributions in the public sphere.
In 1911, Ross, at that time chair of the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust, was worried that the large transfer of Carnegie’s funds to the New York Corporation would mean limited support for activity in the UK. When Carnegie responded by devoting $10million to work in the UK, Ross argued that the size of the fund would lead to huge demands and would require ‘strong wills and clear heads’, and that ‘the men in charge of the fund should be men of very wide sympathies and eminent in such walks of life as will give them experience of what upon the whole is best for national welfare’.
Ross was successful in recruiting distinguished figures from outside Dunfermline to take on the role of life trustee and form the first Executive Committee of the Carnegie UK Trust.
The Trust’s first Secretary was AL Hetherington, who served from 1913 to 1919. He was a skilled negotiator, adept at working with the trustees, and the different people who sought help from the Trust in its early years, when a significant proportion of Trust funds were already committed to work on public libraries.
The encouragement of music by supporting the building of church organs had been one of Andrew Carnegie’s main activities in the UK before the Trust was set up. 3,500 organs were built with his support. The Carnegie UK Trust had to fulfil promises already made by Carnegie, and grants were made towards a further 300 organs. However, Carnegie himself recognised that this policy had reached saturation point and the trustees were quick to look for other ways to encourage people to enjoy and take part in music.
WGS Adams was an eminent and respected political scientist based at Oxford University. Adams joined the Ministry of Munitions and was invited in December 1916 to join Lloyd George’s personal secretariat, supporting the war cabinet and serving until 1918 as one of the private secretaries to Lloyd George. At the general election of 1918 Adams turned down the chance to enter into the House of Commons, and in 1919 returned to Oxford where he helped to establish the now world-renowned course in politics, philosophy, and economics.
Adams was commissioned by the Trust to research the impact of Carnegie libraries and the library service as it was in 1914. Adams’ report was important in steering the Trust’s policy on public libraries over the following years.
Photo: Anderston Library in Glasgow, Gerald Blaikie http://www.scotcities.com/carnegie/
The Trust started to support musical competition festivals from as early as May 1915, when it gave a grant of £200 to the Association of Musical Competition Festivals to be used for choirs to obtain copies of music ‘where it can be shown that members of the choir are poor’.
The Trust continued to support the newly created British Federation of Music Festivals from 1921 until the 1940s.
The British and International Federation of Festivals Patron, Her Majesty the Queen, continues to promote music, dance and speech festivals. Click here for the British and International Federation of Festivals website.
In 1914 the Trustees commissioned Professor W.G.S. Adams, an Oxford academic, to examine library provision and policy across Britain and Ireland and to report on the impact of Carnegie libraries. In a comprehensive report, Adams concluded that there was a need for further development of library services, as more than 40% of the population was still without access to library services. In rural areas only 2.5% of the population had access to a library. Adams’ report made recommendations about rural library services, training for librarians, and legislative change which was needed.
Photo: Anderston Library, Glasgow – Gerald Blaikie http://www.scotcities.com/carnegie/
From the turn of the 20th century many musical scholars were concerned that British music composed during the 16th and 17th century could not be performed or studied because it was lying neglected in cathedrals, museums and colleges. The Trust agreed to support the collection and editing of this music to make it accessible to scholars and performers. The Trust published ten large folio volumes of music, and 50 performing pieces were published individually. This had a considerable impact on the revival of this important music, which is widely performed today.
The Trust was granted a Royal Charter in 1916 by King George V
In its early years, the Trust established a number of experimental projects in the highlands and islands of Scotland. In 1917 a number of hostels were set up where children from remote communities could stay during term-time while attending secondary school. From 1922, hostels for boys and girls were opened in Stornoway on the island of Lewis, and Portree on the Isle of Skye. The development of these hostels was seen as an experimental scheme which the Trust hoped would demonstrate to local authorities ways in which they could improve access to education for those in remote areas.
After the first world war publishers were reluctant to publish music by contemporary British composers, which was detrimental to the musical life of the British Isles.
From 1917 until 1928 over 700 compositions were submitted to the Trust for assessment by a panel of three leading academics and musicians, who selected a small number each year for publication. In total 56 pieces were published, with the composer receiving the royalties.
Some of the works published under this scheme have been extremely successful – in particular Vaughan Williams’ London Symphony, Gustav Holst’s Hymn of Jesus, and Frank Bridge’s symphonic poem The Sea. By the time the scheme ended, publishers were more willing to publish new work, and the Trust withdrew from this area of activity.
The Trust began supporting the Old Vic theatre during the first world war with grants of £500 in 1918 and 1919, as they believed its policy of low prices and reserving tickets for school children was a model for theatre throughout the UK. In 1920 a further grant of £1,500 was made for the provision of a core wardrobe for the company and it was also decided the Trust would make a substantial contribution to the reconstruction of the Theatre which had become necessary by the 1920s. In 1927 the Trust paid £10,000 towards this project and the Old Vic eventually reopened in February 1928. This is equivalent to almost £500,000 today.
To view the Old Vic’s website click here.
In 1919 a school for training librarians opened at University College London following a grant of £7,500 (worth over £300,000 today) made to the Library Association and University of London by the Trust, which allowed the school to function for five years. The Trust continued to support the school until 1929. The Library Association later became the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP). The Trust continues to work with CILIP today. To view the CILIP website click here
Photo: Gerald Blaikie
The British Drama League was set up in 1919 to support amateur drama activity. In 1923 the Trust provided a grant to establish a loan library of sets of plays. The Trust supported the creation and running costs of the library as well as assisting with the purchase of premises at 9 Fitzroy Square, London. In 1972 the league became the British Theatre Association. In 1983 it opened its collection of plays to the public, forming the British Theatre Play Library. Photo: Wyvern Theatre, Swindon, 1983
Colonel JM Mitchell was the Trust’s second Secretary and served for 20 years until February 1939. He was a classics scholar and lecturer, who gave particularly strong support to the Trust’s work on adult education.
The Trust worked closely with the National Council of Social Services from 1921. The first partnership focused on adult education in rural areas, through the creation and support of rural community councils. The Trust and NCSS also worked together on building village halls, tackling the problems of unemployed people in the 1920s and 1930s, and supporting organisations like the National Marriage Guidance Council and Citizens Advice Bureaux services. More recently, NCVO has supported the Trust’s work on the future of civil society – read the report here. NCVO’s current website can be viewed here
Photo: Ardgour village hall
Henry Hadow was a renowned educational reformer, music critic and musicologist who, throughout the 1920s and 1930s, came to be the leading advisor to the Trust on musical matters.
Born in 1859, William Henry Hadow studied at Oxford, later holding various positions in academic institutions, including the Vice Chancellorship of the University of Sheffield. He was a prolific writer and produced several books on educational issues, as well as on music.
He was awarded a knighthood in 1918 and the CBE in 1920. Hadow’s sister Grace, who combined an academic background with strong social concerns, was also involved with the Trust.
In 1921 the Trust gave a £1,000 grant to Barnett House, a social welfare centre in Oxford, worth approximately £38,400 today, to provide adult education services in Oxfordshire villages.
The first Rural Community Council was set up to coordinate the new programmes of lectures, rural craft workshops and music and drama education. Grace Hadow, Secretary of Barnett House at the time, played a key role in its development, and the Trust worked closely with the National Council of Social Services (now NCVO) to set up and support rural community councils in other areas, based on the prototype in Oxfordshire.
Grace Hadow was one of the first women graduates of Oxford University and combined a career as an academic with strong social concerns. She was the founder of the Oxfordshire Rural Community Council and one of the founders of the National Federation of Women’s Institutes becoming vice-chairman in 1917. In 1921 she wrote the first WI handbook, and from 1929-1940 was Principal of St Anne’s College, Oxford. She was the sister of Henry Hadow, who advised the Trust on music.
Grace Hadow persuaded the Trust in 1921 to give a £1,000 grant to Barnett House, a social welfare centre in Oxford, to provide adult education services in Oxfordshire villages. Hadow, Secretary of Barnett House at the time, played a key role in its development, which became a model for rural community councils in other places.
In its early years, the Trust established a number of experimental projects in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, where the Trust felt there was a particular need for services and amenities. In 1917 a series of hostels were set up to allow children in remote areas to attend secondary school.
Although building work was slow, a hostel for girls was opened in 1922 in Stornoway on the island of Lewis. It was known as the Louise Carnegie Hostel and housed 50 girls. Mrs Carnegie presented a piano to be used by the girls.
The development of these hostels was seen as an experimental scheme which the Trust hoped would illustrate to local authorities the need for such hostels at a time when living in a remote area could play a significant part in determining a child’s access to education.
Photo: Andrew Carnegie with wife Louise Carnegie and their only daughter Margaret.
As well its work with mainstream libraries, the Trust supported specialist library services such as those for adult students, and there were numerous smaller initiatives such as schemes to distribute books to boys and girls clubs, and support to the Seafarers Education Service, and the British Sailors’ Society. In 1923, a special grant was made to the National Library for the Blind. £15,000 was given for the erection of additional premises in London. The National Library for the Blind later became the RNIB National Library Service – see their website here
From the early years of the 20th century, there was a growing awareness among musical scholars of a vast repertoire of British church music composed during the 16th and 17th centuries which was languishing in museums, cathedrals and colleges, inaccessible to scholars and performers.
Agreeing to take action, the Trustees appointed RR Terry, the organist of Westminster Cathedral to lead the work of finding and editing this music.The first volume contained music by William Byrd and the work was dedicated to King George V, with his permission.
Sir Percy Jackson was an influential trustee who was not afraid to challenge the other trustees to undertake new areas of work. Sir Percy became a trustee in 1925, while also very involved in the development of national education policy as a member of the consultative committee of the Board of Education from 1922 to 1938 which produced two major reports on schools in the inter-war years. He was vice-chairman of the Trust from 1934 to 1941.
Sir Percy Jackson is remembered for his advocacy of playing fields and Land Settlement, and the Trust’s support for these projects is due in part to his powers of persuasion.
In 1926 the Trust made a significant contribution of £2,000 towards equipping a pioneering adult education college at Harlech, North Wales (worth almost £100,000 in 2012 terms). Coleg Harlech opened in 1927 at a time of great industrial unrest and was aimed primarily at workers from the coalfields of South Wales. Subjects such as English and Welsh literature, history, economics and philosophy were taught, and the aim was to provide an opportunity for study for those who did not want to go to university but to return to their former occupations. During the 1930s the college was used to educate leaders of unemployment clubs and occupation centres and it brought together people from many depressed parts of Wales. Coleg Harlech’s current site can be viewed here
n 1927, the Trust moved to Comely Park House, at 80 New Row, where it remained until 2008. The Scottish Central Library was also run from this building until its move to Edinburgh in 1953.
The National Playing Fields Association (NPFA) asked the Trust to consider funding playing fields in 1927. There was evidence that there was a serious lack of provision with more people being spectators than participants in sport. One of the trustees, Sir Percy Jackson, was keen that the Trust should commit £400,000 to this work, but other trustees felt that the amount should be limited to £100,000 and the trustees finally agreed to commit £200,000 to this policy. This was an astonishingly large sum, equivalent to over £10million today. The Trust worked in partnership with NPFA, now operating as Fields in Trust, on this policy.
To read more about Fields in Trust, visit their website here.
The Trust worked closely with the Workers’ Education Association (WEA) from its earliest years, initially on the creation of the Central Library for Students. It later provided grants that allowed the WEA to extend its work into the more rural parts of England.
In 1927, £7,000 was given over a period of three years allowing the WEA to improve its national and regional administration. In 1930, £2,250 was provided to further extend the rural educational activity programme. The Trust continued to fund WEA until 1935. WEA’s current website can be found here.
The Trust became involved with Young Farmers’ Clubs in 1928. The government asked the Trust to work with the National Council of Social Service to prepare for the establishment of a national organisation for these clubs. The Trust continued to support two federations of Young Farmers’ Clubs until after the second world war.
The Trust first became involved with museums in the 1920s, believing that they were in a poor state. The Trust saw museums as a natural complement to their work on libraries, and as they had done with libraries, commissioned a report on the subject.
The report was written by Sir Henry Miers, recently retired Vice-chancellor of Manchester University. The report found that a very large investment would be needed to improve public museums, and the Trust started a policy of grant aid for museums, and set up a joint Museums Committee.
Henry Miers was a prominent mineralogist and academic administrator. After graduating, Miers worked in the British Museum and taught crystallography at the Central Technical College.
He was Principal of the University of London from 1908, and from 1915 – 26 was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Manchester, with a specially created chair in crystallography. He served on several public bodies, and was president of the Museums Association for five years. His name is commemorated in the mineral miersite.
The Trust commissioned Miers to make an evaluation of the state of public museums, and the Miers Report on the Public Museums of the British Isles was published in 1928, concluding that a very large investment would be necessary to improve public museums, as many were old-fashioned, and lacking financial or public support.
As unemployment poverty levels in the late 1920s and early 1930s grew, the Trust began to support initiatives to help the communities most affected. It worked closely with the National Council of Social Services to improve the social and cultural life of people in mining communities, while also investing in the innovative Land Settlement programme. It carried out research into the needs of 14-18year-olds, and looked at how the needs of 18-22 year-olds could be addressed. Finally it supported research into the links between poverty, health and diet.
The Commission on Educational and Cultural Films was set up in November 1929 to consider how to develop the use of films for educational and cultural purposes and to consider how to encourage the public’s appreciation of films more generally.
The inquiry was entirely funded by the Trust, and several trustees served on the commission. The final report, The Film in National Life urged the importance of making film ‘an instrument of education, clean amusement and social betterment’, and was considered highly influential. It was a major factor behind the decision to set up an official film institute in the UK, which became the British Film Institute. The British Film Institute’s website can be found here
In 1930 the Trust was persuaded by the National Council of Social Services (NCSS) to start to fund the building of village halls. They were seen as essential to the development of cohesive and active local communities. The Trust only made grants to schemes which raised part of the funding themselves. In the 1930s the Trust gave grants to help build over 550 village halls, contributing a total of £80,000.
In the late 1920s the Trust became interested in the use of film in teaching. When the Historical Association approached the Trust to support a study into the use of film as a teaching medium, the Trust agreed.
The final report was published in November 1931 under the title The Value of Films in the Teaching of History. Its general conclusion was that historical films could play a useful part in teaching, but there were few suitable films available. The attitude of teachers had changed and there was an increasing demand for educational films following the experiment.
In its early years, the Trust was keen to open up opportunities for young people, and one example was its involvement with the youth hostel movement in the UK and Ireland. Inspired by new youth movements in Germany and the rest of Europe, the Youth Hostel Association (YHA) was established in 1930, ‘to enable young people to understand and enjoy the countryside more fully, by providing them with cheap and suitable accommodation’. The Trust began to support the Youth Hostel Association across England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland in 1931 by providing regular grants for the construction and administration of new hostels.
To view the YHA’s website click here.
In 1931 the Marquess of Lothian, Phillip Kerr, asked the Trust for advice on converting his Newbattle Abbey estate into a residential adult education centre. Colonel Mitchell, the Secretary of the Trust, became a key figure in the negotiations with local authorities and universities over the next few years and Mitchell persuaded the trustees that Newbattle Abbey was a project worth supporting.In 1935 the Trust offered a grant of £10,000 which was increased by a further £8,000 in 1938. The total amount given to Newbattle Abbey College is equivalent to around £980,000 today. You can visit the current Newbattle Abbey website here
In 1934 the Trust was persuaded that it should support a programme of Land Settlement, to address the problems of unemployment and poverty.
A Land Settlement Association was set up, with Sir Percy Jackson, a Carnegie trustee, serving as its first Chair. An agricultural expert, AW Menzies Kitchin, was commissioned to write a report on land settlement, but before Kitchin had reported the Trust decided to take a risk, and set aside £150,000 to support this policy.
Unfortunately when Kitchin’s report appeared it argued that small land holdings would never be financially viable and would have no impact on the country’s economy. Despite the report, the trustees argued that Land Settlement brought social benefits to the families involved, and felt that the experiment had been worth undertaking.
In 1934 the Trust commissioned a report by Mr Valentine Bell into the Junior Instruction Centres set up by the government. The centres provided courses and training to unemployed fourteen to eighteen year olds.
The report drew attention to the high levels of unemployment in the 18 to 21 age group and the lack of support available to them, especially boys, as membership of boys’ clubs ended at 18.
In 1935, the Trust provided a grant for a three-year inquiry into the educational and social problems of young men and women in the 18-22 age group. This followed the Trust’s report into Junior Instruction Centres and the grant was equivalent to over £100,000 today.
By the time the inquiry was completed, the situation had changed completely due to the outbreak of war. It did however result in the foundation of a number of 18+ clubs, which the Trust helped for a number of years, as well as a report Disinherited Youth, which provided a historical record of life in Glasgow, Liverpool and Cardiff at the time.
18+ clubs operated primarily as discussion groups, and continued to operate until 2006 when they were renamed Plus.
he Trust has always supported amateur music-making, and in 1935 supported the creation of the National Federation of Music Societies (NFMS). NFMS, now operating as Making Music, became the main channel for the Trust’s support of music-making. In its first year, with support from the Trust, NFMS was able to support over 130 music societies with grants to secure them against loss on the season’s work.
Sir George Dyson, who became a Carnegie trustee in 1942, and chair in 1960, was the first President of NFMS. Today Making Music supports over 3,000 groups throughout the UK.
Click here for the Making Music website
In 1936 the Trust received an application for a grant from Toynbee Hall. Toynbee was the first university settlement in the UK and provided a wide range of services for a very deprived community. The request was for a contribution towards an extension of their premises. Despite its local remit, trustees were sufficiently impressed by the pioneering nature of the work at Toynbee Hall, and the supporting letter from the Archbishop of Canterbury, that it agreed to award a grant of £10,000. This went towards the establishment of a new building to house a theatre, classrooms for evening students, art and dance studios and a youth justice court. This combined two of the Trust’s main areas of interest – adult education and participation in the arts. Click here for Toynbee Hall’s current site.
In 1937 the Trust gave £15,000 to fund John Boyd Orr’s inquiry into the connections between economic factors and health. This became known as the Carnegie Survey and involved an economic and dietary survey of over 1300 families across Britain.
Boyd Orr examined the diets of children in orphanages and schools, and devised a feeding experiment, giving supplementary food to families with poor diet and health to find out if health and physique could be improved by improving the diet.
The survey was complete by November 1939 but publication was delayed because of the war. The data was used by the Government in the design of wartime rationing and also had an impact on national agricultural practice.
After the Miers report on public museums in 1928 the Trust started to support museums on a small scale, but decided to commission another report in 1938, from SF Markham. Like the Miers report, Markham recommended a complete overhaul to modernise Britain’s museums, to meet standards set by museums in Sweden and Switzerland. The outbreak of the second world war postponed a response, and while the Trust’s interest in museums continued after the war, the process of modernisation was very slow. Despite this, the Trust continued its modest, but targeted investment in museums, believing that this was better than doing nothing.
Much of the Trust’s work was interrupted by the war, and the Trust was limited in what it could do as a result of the restrictions in the Trust Deed, which prevented it doing anything which could be interpreted as supporting the war. There was disagreement among trustees about this, with the result that only a third of the available income was spent. The Trust became introspective, but continued to support innovative work where it could, as well as organisations which had previously received support, and national bodies which had run into difficulties. The Trust maintained its support for the arts during the war years, focusing its support on amateur groups.
John Boyd Orr was a nutritional physiologist who was invited by the Trust to undertake a large-scale study into the links between poor diet and health in 1937.
In 1913 he became director of a newly-established Institute of Nutrition at the University of Aberdeen and held this position until the First World War broke out. In 1918 he was seconded to the army to study food resource allocation. On returning to Aberdeen, Boyd Orr turned his attention to the nutrition of farm animals and of human populations. This led Boyd Orr’s lifelong friend, Walter Elliot, then under-secretary of state for Scotland – and husband of Carnegie trustee, Lady Elliot – to introduce legislation to provide milk for children in Scottish schools.
Boyd Orr’s contribution to scientific thought was recognised when he was elected FRS in 1932 and knighted in 1935. Boyd Orr became Director-General of the recently-established International Food and Agriculture Organisation in 1945. He was created Baron Boyd Orr in 1949 and in the same year received the Nobel peace prize. Boyd Orr died in 1971.
James Wilkie was the Trust’s third Secretary and served from 1940 to 1953. He had a background as a civil servant and was very committed to the Trust’s early work on rural affairs, with the creation of the first rural community council happening during his time as secretary.
Sir George Dyson became a Carnegie trustee in 1942 and Trust Chair in 1955.
He first become involved with the Trust in 1934 when a group of well-known figures in the music world, including Sir Hugh Allen, WG Whittaker and Sir Edward Bairstow were invited to give their views on what the Trust should do in the field of music.
The Trust decided that the National Federation of Music Societies (NFMS), set up in 1935 with the support of the Trust as part of the Incorporated Society of Musicians, should be the main agent for its work in this area. Sir George Dyson was the first President of the NFMS.
From the early 1940s, the Trust was involved in establishing music advisory committees in local authority areas, and funding the post of county music adviser for adult and post-school activities in many areas.
In the aftermath of the Second World War, the Trust embarked on one of its riskiest ventures: mass adult education through the establishment of a Bureau of Current Affairs.
The scheme was a continuation of a successful wartime experiment conducted by the Army Bureau of Current Affairs (ABCA) which circulated literature on current and international affairs to the armed forces.
The initial success of this venture was short-lived, and the Bureau closed in 1951. Nonetheless, trustees who were involved with the scheme were glad to have taken the risk, despite its failure.
Salter Davies was chair of the Trust from 1946-1950, and served as a trustee from 1924-1950.
He was a Welsh educationalist, and Director of Education for Kent in 1918. Among other public appointments, he was the President of the Library Association from 1935, a trustee of the National Central Library and chairman of the Rural Schools Committee on the Central Council for School Broadcasting.
His obituary in The Times described him as ‘for long a leading figure in educational administration and thought in England’. His own publications included several books on educational themes, including The Aim of Education and Education for Industry and Life.
In the wake of the Second World War, the Trust had a growing interest in welfare and social work. The trustees asked Eileen Younghusband of the London School of Economics (LSE) to prepare a report on the training of social workers.
In her reports in 1947 and 1950, Younghusband described the existing welfare work in local authority departments of health and welfare as a ‘rag bag’ of activities with different workers dealing with the different aspects of people’s problems. The report recommended the development of a body of core knowledge and training for generic social workers, and the Trust went on to fund the LSE to develop such a course, which first ran in 1954.
In the late 1940s the Trust began supporting the visual arts through the Council for the Arts, Music and Drama in Northumberland (CAMDIN).
Between 1947 and 1950 the Trust provided grants which were mostly used to employ experts to visit local art clubs.
James Wilkie, Trust secretary, in a speech at the opening of the annual exhibition of the Federation of Northern Art Societies, explained the Trust’s support for cultural pursuits by saying, ‘If people are to make full use of the increased leisure which they now have, something other than mere commercial entertainment is necessary.’
Photo: Society for All Artists
After the Second World War the trustees asked Eileen Younghusband of the London School of Economics to prepare a report for them on the training of social workers.
Younghusband (1902-1981) started her working life as an unqualified social worker in London, and later served on the staff at LSE as a lecturer in social studies.
She wrote two reports for the Trust, in 1947 and 1950, advocating a generic course in social work training with a set of core knowledge and skills common to all social workers.
In 1953 the trustees offered a grant of £20,000 to the London School of Economics to establish a generic course in Applied Social Studies over a four year period. The ‘Carnegie Course’ proved itself and was accepted as a permanent addition to the University’s programme in 1957.
In the late 1940s the Trust felt that the lack of any recognised qualification for tutors was holding back the development of amateur drama. The Trust set up the Drama Board to be an examining body for tutors in non-professional drama in 1949, and provided a start-up grant and annual subsidy.
The Drama Board started work in 1950 and in the Trust’s 1950 Annual Report, it is stated that ‘So far as we can judge from the early reports which have reached us, the Board has already established itself in the esteem and confidence of the various bodies which are concerned with the promotion of amateur drama.’
The Trust continued to fund the Drama Board until 1977.
David Marshall was the fourth chair of the Trust, serving from 1950-55.
He was one of the Dunfermline trustees and is particularly remembered for his support for opening up the countryside through the Trust’s work on supporting visitor centres in national parks. The first centre, the David Marshall Lodge near Aberfoyle, is testament to his vision.
To visit the David Marshall Lodge website click here.
In 1951 the Trust agreed to provide funding to support Andrew Cooper to develop an instrument that allowed people to communicate with those who were both blind and deaf, of whom there were an estimated 2000 people in the UK. The ARCAID device had a typewriter keyboard and produced a print out in Braille. The machines were tested by organisations working with deaf and blind people, and in 1952 and 1953 further funds were given to create improvements. Several of the Trustees visited those using the ARCAID in the years following the first grants and all agreed that the Trust’s money had been well spent despite the small numbers who could benefit from the ARCAID.
After the second world war, the Trust was concerned about the needs of the growing immigrant population which settled in Britain in the 1940s and 1950s. The Trust was eager to contribute towards the ‘integration of the coloured person into the life of Britain’ and it began funding initiatives such as Stanley House in Liverpool, a community centre which had been established in 1942. Between 1951 and 1955 the Trust awarded grants totalling £6,000 to Stanley House for the development of projects which aimed to encourage the inclusion of the city’s migrant population in the wider community.
In 1951 the Trust received an application from distinguished war pilot Group Captain Leonard Cheshire for funding to install central heating in his residential home for disabled people.
Trustees visited the home and rejected Cheshire’s request. Instead they insisted that an entirely new home should be built, at the Trust’s expense. The Trust gave a total of £65,000, equivalent to around £1,590,000 today.
This became a model for similar establishments across the UK and Ireland, and was the start of the development of the organisation known today as Leonard Cheshire Disability, which has services around the world, and is one of the UK’s largest voluntary sector providers of services to people who are disabled.
Click here for the Leonard Cheshire Disability website.
In the early 1950s the Trust began supporting projects which aimed to promote family wellbeing, including the National Marriage Guidance Council, which had been set up by the National Council of Social Services.
In 1953 the Trust received an application from Trinity College, Dublin for a grant towards the expenses of rebinding the Book of Kells and the Book of Durrow, and to provide a suitable display case for the manuscripts.
This application did not strictly fall within the Trust’s policy priorities of the time, and the Trust had a general policy of not funding universities. However, the Trustees decided to consider this as an exceptional application as there was no other source of funding available at the time, and due to the importance of these early medieval manuscripts. The trustees agreed to provide a grant to cover half the cost of the project. For more information on the Book of Kells click here
Photo: Trinity College Dublin
In pursuing its policy of promoting family welfare, the Trust provided a grant of £30,000 to the Brentwood Recuperative Centre for Mothers and Children.
The Centre had been established by the Community Council of Lancashire between the wars as a holiday home for mothers and children and then as a recuperation centre for ‘overburdened mothers’. The grant was to cover the costs of building an extension, and the proposal was strongly supported by John Mack, who had written the report for the Trust on juvenile delinquency, and was a keen supporter of the Brentwood centre.
A few years later, a supplementary grant of £6,500 was given towards maintaining the centre, but in the late 1950s there was a move away from what were seen as ‘segregationist’ measures in dealing with social issues.
In 1953 the Trust gave £10,000 to the National Association for Mental Health (now Mind), a voluntary body founded in 1947. It aimed to promote a wider understanding of the importance of mental health among both the general public and professionals.
The Association was struggling financially: public support for its work was still quite limited, as the general public’s sympathy for and understanding of mental health problems only developed slowly. The Trust recognised the importance and pioneering character of the Association’s work and awarded a grant to allow it to open a regional office in Leeds allowing the Association to expand its work to the north of England.
An additional grant was made in 1957 to support it for another five years.
Click here for the Mind website.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s ‘problem youth’ was a hot topic in the press. The media played up the unprecedented increase in young people under the age of 17 being found guilty of offences and speculated about the reasons.
From 1948, the Trust organised a number of conferences to discuss the issue, and then commissioned John Mack to map current activities concerned with juvenile delinquency, and make proposals for how the Trust should respond.
Mack’s report Family and Community was completed in 1953, and recommended that there should be more of a focus on wider family relationships, which appeared to be at the root of the behavioural problems of young offenders.
David Lowe, was Trust Secretary from 1954-1970 after working for the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS).
Lowe was interested in encouraging partnerships with organisations receiving grants. He was responsible for the Trust taking a greater interest in the natural sciences, field studies and conservation. He also encouraged the Trust’s involvement in services for young people, and in creating social amenities in new housing estates. He was a key player in the founding of the Conservation Corps and the new kind of youth movement that was emerging in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
In 1954 the Trust embarked upon a pioneering scheme to encourage people of all ages to visit and enjoy national and forest parks. Their first attempt to build such a centre in the Peak District failed, but in 1955 the Scottish Forestry Commission welcomed the Trust’s proposal and a site was found in the Queen Elizabeth Forest Park near Aberfoyle. £50,000 was made available, and the David Marshall Lodge was completed in the summer of 1960 as a prototype for future park developments. Today the lodge provides a range of facilities for people enjoying the park. Photo courtesy of www.photographscotland.com. For current information about David Marshall Lodge click here.
The idea to establish the Citizens Advice Bureau (CAB) service emerged before the second world war, as an emergency service of free unbiased information and advice provided for citizens, by citizens. At the start of the war 200 bureaux were ready to open their doors, and during the war numbers expanded with many people seeking information on rationing and Red Cross messaging services. As the war ended, funding from the Ministry of Health dried up and the number of bureaux had to be halved. The service appealed to charitable trusts and in 1957 the Trust made a grant of £5,000 over five years to allow the service to expand into rural areas. Photo Citizens Advice/COI. For CAB’s current site click here.
Through its support for the Conservation Corps the Trust was able to pursue two of its primary interests: conservation and opening up opportunities for young people. In October 1958 the Trust supported the creation of a new national youth movement to promote nature and environmental responsibility. A grant of £9,000 for three years was given to the Council for Nature, an umbrella body for natural history organisations. The grant enabled an experimental volunteering programme called the Conservation Corps to begin. It combined education with adventurous holiday activities. In 1970 this became the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers, and it now operates as The Conservation Volunteers. Their website can be found here.
Having already supported the National Association for Mental Health in England from 1953, the Trust was asked to support a similar body in Northern Ireland. Having turned down an application for a Scottish organisation, the Trust only agreed to provide support for a Northern Ireland body because those lobbying for this new organisation had managed to secure financial backing from the Northern Irish government.
The trustees agreed to match the government’s grant of £6,500 and in 1959 the Northern Ireland Mental Health Association (Niamh) came into being. Niamh aimed to provide care for people suffering from mental illness and, as a service-user led organisation, was ahead of its time. In 1959 it opened Beacon House, which provided community-based day support. Both NIAMH and its Beacon Support Centres are still going strong today.
To read more about Niamh, click here.
As part of its attempt to respond to the need for better services for young people, in 1960 the Trust agreed to support research into an innovative community outreach project.
It was run by the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) in London. The project operated from a mobile coffee stall and allowed social workers to make direct contact with young people and to build relationships with them.
The Trust agreed to fund the London School of Economics to carry out some research into the impact of the project, and into what lessons there might be for work with ‘unattached’ young people.
Ord A Cunningham, a Dunfermline-based trustee, became a trustee in 1939 and served as chair from 1960 to 1965. During this period the Trust’s finances were reinvested in stocks and shares, after having been held in gilt-edged securities for some time.
Photo: Trustees – Left to right: Mrs Cunningham, Lord Elgin, Ord A Cunningham, Mrs Carnegie Miller, Joseph Johnson
The Trust developed a large-scale policy in the 1960s, focusing on the problems associated with post-war housing developments. The lack of social amenities had led to applications to the Trust for funding for youth clubs and other community facilities. In 1960 the Trust funded an inquiry into these communities, led by Dr JH Nicholson, former Vice-Chancellor of Hull University, in collaboration with the National Council of Social Services. The study was published in 1961 and found a lack of places where people could meet to address the general lack of a sense of belonging which existed. The Trust then started a grant-aid programme for social projects in new communities, setting aside £100,000 for this purpose (equivalent to £1.74 million today).
After commissioning the Nicholson report in 1960, which identified the social problems in new communities created after the war, the Trust began to support these communities by providing grants for community centres. Between 1961 and 1965 the Trust offered grants for ten community centres where no facilities existed in places like Bristol, Sunderland and Weymouth. Although the Trust’s focus was mainly on providing community centres, it also made a few one-off grants to other projects concerned with the integration of immigrants.
The Trust supported Community Service Volunteers from 1963, supporting its core and set up costs. The Trust continued their support during the 60s and 70s as CSV developed challenging new programmes such as Full Time Volunteering and volunteering support for people with disabilities, both of which continue and thrive today. CSV still manages the largest full time volunteering programme in the UK, enabling 1000 young people each year to live away from home and support others in need.
You can visit CSV’s current site here.
Lady Elliot was a trustee for 54 years and Chair of the Trust between 1965 and 1970. As both trustee and chair, she was known for her plain-speaking, commitment and her formidable personality.
She was a passionate opponent of the death penalty and was closely involved in the campaign for prison reform. She made a name for herself in public life, holding various influential positions and sat on the Home Office advisory committee on the treatment of offenders from 1946 to 1962, during which time she visited every prison in the UK.
On three occasions in the 1950s she was a member of the UK delegation to the United Nations. In 1958 she was made a DBE and was created a life peer in 1959.
In 1966 the Trust was approached for funding by the National Society for Autistic Children, now known as the National Autistic Society. The Trust agreed to award the Society a grant of £7,850 for an information and advisory service. This would provide information about diagnostic services, hospital care and specialist schools to parents of autistic children, doctors, teachers and local authorities across the country.
In 1976 the National Society for Autistic Children received a further grant of £5,000 from the Trust for the establishment of an experimental unit for pre-school age autistic children.
Click here for the National Autistic Society’s website.
John Wolfenden, later Lord Wolfenden, was a particularly influential and well-connected trustee who served from 1942 until 1985, and chair of the Trust from 1970-74. He had a distinguished career as an educationalist and public servant, including being the chairman of the Headmaster’s Conference and Vice-Chancellor of Reading University. Later he became Director and Principal Librarian of the British Museum.
On retirement he was asked to chair various educational bodies and a series of committees of inquiry. He chaired the Committee on Voluntary Organisations which was set up by the Trust and the Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust in 1974 to investigate the future of voluntary organisations in the last quarter of the 20th century. The final report of this committee was published in 1978.
In his autobiography he describes his years as a trustee as having been particularly important to him and had ‘provided more interest and given me more friends than any out-of-school activity in which I have indulged’.
In 1971, the Trustees promised £5,000 to the Scottish Old People’s Welfare Council as part of its move to become Age Concern (Scotland). They gave the same amount to Age Concern bodies in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. In Northern Ireland this new body was part of the Northern Ireland Council of Social Service and did not become independent until 1975. Age Concern has now been merged with Help the Aged to form Age UK. Click here for the Age UK website.
Michael Holton, was Trust Secretary from 1971-75. He shared his predecessor’s interest in conservation and the environment and later served as Secretary of the Countryside Commission in Scotland, and as the Secretary for the Royal Society for Nature Conservation from 1988-1993.
The Trust was one of the first funders of Gingerbread which was founded in 1971 as a charity for single parents. In 1972, the Trust gave a grant of £15,000 to support a national group coordinator and the formation of local groups. In 1975 another £15,000 was given and an additional special grant of £6,000 was made a few years later for urgent welfare work.
To read more about Gingerbread, visit their website here.
The Trust gave the Shelter Housing Aid Centre a grant of £30,000 in 1973. This was specifically to develop an out-of-London department to assist poorer families in housing stress to move away from London.
By 1976 over 1,000 families had been helped, and the Trust gave a further grant of £15,000 in 1976 towards the cost of maintaining this out-of-London department.
To read more about Shelter, visit their website here.
Ronald CB Currie, a Dunfermline solicitor was Chair of the Trust between 1974 and 1977, when he resigned due to ill health.
Photo: The James I Scott gavel belonging to the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust and used by our current Chair at board meetings held at Andrew Carnegie House.
In 1975 the Trust decided to merge its existing policies on the countryside, museums and conservation. This new policy supported schemes which interpreted local history or the natural environment.
For example, in 1975 the Trust helped to establish the Society for the Interpretation of Britain’s Heritage . There was also interest in open-air museums, and the Trust supported the idea of ‘museums without walls’. The Norfolk Carnegie Project, started in 1973, was an ambitious project aiming to interpret the history and natural environment of Norfolk using display boards throughout the county.
Photo: A ‘living’ museum – Gladstone Court, Lanarkshire 1973
In 1975 the Trust gave an initial grant of £24,000 to the youth homelessness charity Centrepoint to support the running of an all-night emergency shelter for homeless young people in London, as well as a support and information service. Part of the grant was earmarked for Centrepoint House, a new project providing short to medium-term accommodation for young people who would otherwise be homeless.
To read more about Centrepoint, visit their website here.
In 1965 the Trust agreed to support the creation of a purpose-built residential education centre for disabled people providing non-vocational courses.
The Trust was only willing to fund this if other partners could be found. Eventually several voluntary organisations in the disability field agreed to set up a joint sponsoring body for the college, and a public appeal was launched.
Prospect Hall was finally opened by HRH the Queen Mother in 1977. The Trust’s investment was very large (£225,000),but unfortunately the hopes for Prospect Hall were not fulfilled as the idea of separate services for disabled people fell out of favour.
Geoffrey Lord served as Trust Secretary from 1977-93. He brought a strong interest in the arts and disability, and was involved in setting up the Inquiry into the Arts and Disabled People. He prompted the creation of organisations which promoted access for disabled people to arts premises and has continued to be involved with many civil society organisations after retiring from the Trust in 1993.
Lady Albermarle was Chair of the Trust between 1977 and 1982. She was a trustee from 1949 to 2000, and was closely associated with the Women’s Institute, the Youth Service, the Development Commission, the Museum Service and the Drama Board.
In 1978 the idea of a ‘community play’ was developed by Ann Jellicoe – involving the whole community as writers, actors and stage crew working with theatre professionals. The following year, with support from the Trust, Colway Theatre Trust (now known as Claque Theatre) was formed to promote inclusive community theatre. The Trust gave more funding in 1983 and 1987. In 2009 Claque was awarded the Castillo Award in New York for its contribution to social political theatre. Photo: Thanks to Claque Theatre. You can visit Claque Theatre’s website here.
In the 1970s the Trustees became interested in the pre-school playgroup movement. They were keen to support the expansion of pre-school playgroups into the more deprived parts of the UK. The Trust awarded a grant of £33,000 to the Association in 1978 and a further grant of £30,000 in 1981 in to help establish a variety of projects, including playgroups working with disabled children. Smaller grants were given in Scotland and Ireland to encourage the formation of playgroups in areas of need.
More information is available on their website here.
Starting in 1978, the Trust provided funding for Shape, a disability-led arts organisation, to develop its work and extend its reach throughout England. Between 1981 and 1985 grants were given to build the central administration of Shape, and local funding continued until 1990. Today Shape develops opportunities for disabled artists, trains cultural institutions in being more accessible to disabled audiences, and runs participatory arts and development programes.
The Trust started to support NYOS with a launching grant of £20,000 in 1978, which allowed the orchestra to hold its first course in 1979. The Trust made another grant of £10,000 towards the basic stability of the organisation’s finances and provided an invested fund of £10,000 to be used over a five-year period for essential bursaries for young musicians. Visit the NYOS website here.
In 1982 the Trust set up an ambitious Committee of Inquiry into the Arts and Disabled People chaired by Sir Richard Attenborough to enquire into the experience of disabled people in the arts. The final report in May 1985 concluded that there was an urgent need to raise awareness of the importance of arts to people with disabilities, and improve access. To ensure that some action followed this report, the Trust set up the Carnegie Council for the Arts and Disabled People, and began to provide funding for initiatives in this area.
Timothy J Coleman was Chair of the Trust between 1982 and 1987.
In 1982 the Trust agreed to administer a new fund in Scotland as part of the government’s volunteering programme. The purpose of the fund was to provide grants for new schemes using volunteers – especially those who were unemployed. During the first year £400,000 was allocated to 44 organisations. In 1989 the UVAF was re-launched as an independent fund, and in 2003 this became the Voluntary Action Fund which continues today. More information is available on their website here.
In June 1985 £10,000 was given to the Bristol Community Dance Centre, an educational charity, towards the costs of a new studio for people with disabilities. It was unusual for the Trustees to involve themselves with ‘building work’ but they were particularly impressed by the attempt to experiment with different forms of dance and their work with unemployed and disabled young people. The Centre is now the longest-serving dedicated dance centre in the UK. Photo from left: Musician Ian Dury, Alan Roberts (current Artistic Director) and the late Anne Hewer OBE (former Dance Centre Chair) on the opening day. To read more about the Bristol Community Dance Centre Click Here. Photographer: Stephan Beese
In 1978 the Trust started a programme to support the renovation of fine pipe organs in civic buildings. The Trust was prepared to help, provided the organ merited restoration and would be used for public performance, and students were able to use the organ for practice.
By the time the policy ended in 1986 around £250,000 had been allocated, and in May 1986 there was a celebratory concert in the Royal Albert Hall, featuring one of the organs restored under the scheme. Several leading organists played as well as the Royal College of Music Orchestra. A piece for organ, strings and percussion commissioned by the Trust from Francis Jackson was played.
Catherine C Sharp was the Chair of the Trust between 1987 and 1990.
Photo: The Queen Mother talking to Catherine Sharp, second from the left at the opening of Prospect Hall in 1977
The Trust made a large investment in the setting up of ADAPT (Access for Disabled People to Arts Premises Today) in 1989. In its first year ADAPT raised and allocated over £1m, funding arts organisations to install ramps, lifts, loop-hearing systems, special space and seating, and to give appropriate training to staff.
By 1991 ADAPT had supported adaptations in 91 arts venues and aimed to ensure that every major arts venue in Britain was accessible by 2000. At a time when there was no legal requirement to ensure access for people with disabilities, it was the only body working in this field. Visit ADAPT’s current website here.
Anthony M Mould was Chair of the Trust between 1990 and 1995.
Photo: Board meeting in 1990. Anthony M Mould is in the centre.
By the 1980s people were retiring earlier, living longer and had more resources at their disposal than before. A new description of this phase of life was ‘the Third Age’, and in 1989 the Trust organised a conference on ‘Life, Work and Livelihood in the Third Age’. As a result, it set up the Carnegie Inquiry into the Third Age to examine issues such as employment, pensions, education and training, volunteering and leisure activities. The Inquiry produced nine research reports and its final report ‘Life, Work and Livelihood in the Third Age’ was published in 1993. When the Inquiry came to an end in 1993, the Carnegie Third Age Programme was set up to ensure that action followed the report’s recommendations.
Following the Trust’s investment in village halls in the 1930s, 1950s and 1960s, there was further support from 1991. This support focused on improving facilities. Grants were made for arts and crafts activities and indoor sports. Some halls started to provide a wider range of services, including acting as healthy living centres, or as community or IT centres. Support for facilities in rural areas was continued through the rural programme which operated until 2004.
In the late 1980s a number of amateur arts organisations began to voice the need for a central network to represent and support arts organisations across the UK and Ireland. Millions of people were involved in such groups, but the level of public funding and representation was minimal.
The Trust played a key role in the early discussions and convened a conference in Edinburgh in 1988 which affirmed the need for a more effective voice. In 1991 it was agreed that a Voluntary Arts Network should be set up, and this body was established as an independent charity in 1992, continuing to receive grants from the Trust until 2003.
Click here for the Voluntary Arts Network’s website.
John Naylor was Trust Secretary from 1993-2003, after working in various youth organisations. He was concerned with many of the core areas of Trust activity including rural affairs, heritage and environmental issues. He oversaw the transition from life trustees to an open appointment process for fixed term trustees.
Dame Gillian Wagner was Chair of the Trust between 1995 and 2000.
Photo: Dame Gillian Wagner (left) and Linda Brown
The Carnegie Young People Initiative (CYPI) was set up in 1996. It is an interesting example of the Trust combining work on policy at national level with grant funding of local projects. The latter were used as exemplars of good practice to support the policy and influencing role. From 2000 the focus of the CYPI was on young people’s involvement in public decision-making. It continued until 2007 when much of its work was taken over by Participation Works, a partnership organisation focusing on young people’s involvement.
The Trust’s support for music making has included supporting organisations which encourage music making among young people. This has included launch funding for the National Youth Brass Band, the National Youth Orchestra of Scotland (NYOS) and the National Youth Choir of Scotland (NYCOS). To visit the NYCoS website click here.
William Thomson is the great grandson of Andrew Carnegie. He was the Chair of the Trust from 2000 to 2004 and is now Honorary President. He formerly worked in shipping and is now a director of retail and publishing companies.
Photo: William Thomson meeting Princess Anne at the opening of Andrew Carnegie House.
Charlie McConnell was Chief Executive from 2003-08 having worked in adult education and community development. These interests were reflected in the two major pieces of work which were launched during his five years with the Trust: the Carnegie Commission for Rural Community Development, and the Inquiry into the Future of Civil Society. McConnell was keen to make the Trust a more modern organisation with a clear focus on disadvantage, and moved the Trust from a grant-making to an operating trust.
In parallel with the work of the Commission on Rural Community Development, the Trust started a Rural Action Research Programme (RARP) co-funded by the Big Lottery. The Trust worked with over 40 partners from the UK and Ireland, to support this action research. This work focused on promoting a community development approach and community-led solutions, building inclusive communities, exploring an asset-based approach to communities, and addressing the needs of remote and peripheral areas. The evidence from this work, with partners including the Plunkett Foundation, Action with Market Towns and the Development Trusts Association, prompted real advances in rural policy.
In 2004 the Trust set up the Carnegie Commission for Rural Community Development, a three year inquiry into rural communities, under the chairmanship of Lord Steel of Aikwood. The focus was on ways to strengthen the voice of rural communities, to demonstrate the effectiveness of rural community development, and to maximise the resources available in rural communities. The final report of the Commission A Charter for Rural Communities was published in 2007 and described the characteristics needed by sustainable rural communities in the future.
he Andrew Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy is presented every two years to one or more individuals who have dedicated their private wealth to public good. It has been awarded since 2001, supported by more than 20 of the institutions Andrew Carnegie established. In 2005, this prestigious award was presented in Scotland for the first time, hosted by the Scottish Parliament. In celebration of the Carnegie UK Trust centenary in 2013, the Medal of Philanthropy will be presented in the Scottish Parliament on Thursday 17 October 2013. Read More
Photo: Medal winners with William Thomson, Carnegie UK Trust President, and George Reid, who was the Presiding Officer of the Scottish Parliament in 2005.
Urmila Banerjee was Chair of the Trust between 2005 and 2007.
This inquiry was part of the Trust’s work on strengthening democracy and civil society which ran from 2005 to 2010. The Commission was chaired by Geoff Mulgan, currently Chief Executive of NESTA (pictured here). The aims were to explore threats to and opportunities for a healthy civil society, identify how policy and practice could strengthen civil society and help civil society to prepare for the challenges of the future. Events, consultation and research informed the Commission’s work, and the final report Making Good Society was published in 2010. The report identified four main areas in which civil society’s influence needed to be strengthened: the news media; the financial industry; the environment; and democracy.
Anthony Pender was Chair of the Trust between 2007 and 2008.
Photo: Anthony Pender (right) with Éamon Ó Cuív (Irish Minister for Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs at the time) with CUKT publication A Charter for Rural Communities
The Trust moved its headquarters in 2008 to the new purpose-built Andrew Carnegie House on the edge of Pittencrieff Park. The building accommodates the four UK-based Carnegie trusts and was opened on 13 February 2008 by Princess Anne.
In 2008 the Trust became one of the sponsors of the Festival of Politics which takes place in the Scottish Parliament. This has given the Trust the opportunity to organise high profile events with stimulating speakers to debate some of the key issues in the Trust’s current work. In recent years, topics have included the future of public libraries, land reform, the importance of reading for children and for society, the media reporting of the Arab Spring, and whether peace is worth fighting for. Photo: Festival of Politics 2012 discussion on the importance of reading
As part of its work on democracy and civil society which started in 2006, the Trust worked with many partners to explore the links between power and social change. From 2008 the second phase of this work focused on action, and helped 20 organisations to explore ways in which the analysis of power could help them achieve the social change they were working for. This work was jointly funded by the Trust and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
A series of reports came out this work including Power and Making Change Happen available here and Power – a practical guide for facilitating social change available here.
Angus Hogg served as interim Chair between 2008 and 2009, while also serving as a trustee. Angus returned to his position as Chair of the Carnegie UK Trust in 2012 -2017.
Early in his career, Angus worked in Local Government Service with Fife County Council and subsequently Fife Regional Council where he specialised in Supply Management and Procurement. In 1978 he was appointed Company Secretary to a Stationery and Office Equipment company. At the age of 32 he founded Panda Litho Ltd a Print and Design Company and over 24 years expanded the company with various business acquisitions in Edinburgh and Blantyre, which added Manufacturing Stationery and Bookbinding to the company’s portfolio.
In 2003 he disposed of his interests in the company and formed a business consultancy, The Lomond Partnership and the following year Eden River Associates.
In 1996 he was appointed Life Trustee of the Carnegie Dunfermline and Hero Fund Trusts and was chair of those trusts during 2006 to 2008.
Early in its work, the rural programme, which started in 2004, recognised the importance of individual enthusiasts for successful rural community development – referred to as ‘fiery spirits’. The Trust supported a community of practice in this area, known as Fiery Spirits to bring rural practitioners, policy makers and academics together. An interactive website was established through which members could share their experiences and challenges. Highlands and Islands Enterprise became a co-sponsor in 2010, and the Trust continued to fund Fiery Spirits until the end of 2012. Fiery Spirits provides online communication, but also organises face to face meetings so that people can share ideas and experiences.
Click here for the Fiery Spirits website.
Photo: Eigg by Cailean Maclean
Martyn was Chief Executive of the Trust November 2009 – March 2019.
Previously he was Director of the Scottish Consumer Council (SCC) from 1998 to 2008. He oversaw the successful 2008 merger of the SCC with Energywatch Scotland and Postwatch Scotland. In 2008 he became Director of the new organisation – Consumer Focus Scotland.
Martyn was Chief Executive Officer of Citizens Advice Scotland for five years prior to taking up his post with SCC and the Director of Shelter (Scottish Campaign for Homeless People) from 1987-1992.
Melanie Leech was Chair of the Trust from 2009 to 2012.
During her time as Chair, the Trust developed the strategic plan for 2011 – 2015 which introduced a new structure for the organisation with two core teams developing policy and practice work. Melanie Leech conducted a full review of the Trust’s governance in 2011 and was involved in the Trust’s Investment Review in 2012.
She is the Director General of the Food and Drink Federation and has previously served in a range of government departments, including Cabinet Office, Department of Culture Media and Sport and HM Customs. She was seconded from the civil service to the Association of Police Authorities as Executive Director.
The Carnegie Challenge is a fund to support partners to put on a high calibre debate to raise the profile and impact of a conference or event which they are organising. It is used to attract leading public policy thinkers and commentators to debate issues of public concern.
Carnegie Challenge partners are mainly civil society organisations with a commitment to improving the wellbeing of people in the UK and Ireland. The programme has proved very successful and continues in 2013. To read more, visit the Carnegie Challenge page on our website which can be found here.
The Carnegie UK Trust has been actively involved in promoting wellbeing in policy since the establishment of the first Carnegie Roundtable on Measuring What Matters in Scotland in 2010. Since 2011 we have published case studies of how governments and civil society organisations measure wellbeing in France, the USA, and Canada; made recommendations on next steps for the Scottish National Performance Framework; funded a policy assessment tool which uses wellbeing indicators to critique policy proposals; set out steps for developing a wellbeing framework in Northern Ireland; produced guidance on wellbeing frameworks for cities and regions; and convened an international roundtable discussion on the successes and challenges of developing high-level strategies based on wellbeing and translating this to policy action.
In early 2019 we published Wellbeing in a Devolved Context, open access through Palgrave Macmillan.
Carnegie UK Trust and IACD have developed a keen interest in approaches to rural development that acknowledge the things that communities have rather than the things they lack. The potential of this philosophy was first discussed in Carnegie’s ‘Charter for Rural Communities’, published in 2007. The Trust also supported a range of partner
organisations that conducted action research into aspects of the sustainable management of
community assets. This report draws in part upon these findings.
In 2011 Blair Jenkins OBE, former Director of Broadcasting at Scottish Television and Head of News and Current Affairs at BBC Scotland was appointed as a Carnegie Fellow. His role was to advise the Trust on how better news services can be delivered in the digital age.
In the context of the phone hacking crisis of 2011 and the subsequent Leveson Inquiry, there was a strong interest in the ethics of journalism, and Jenkins’s report Better Journalism in the Digital Age found here has served to underpin the Trust’s continuing policy work in this area.
The TestTown was a competition open to teams of young people aged 16-30 who were asked to design a small retail space in a host town to be announced in early 2013. The entries were judged on their creativity, innovation and their ability to stretch the public’s imagination of what a town centre is. Carnegie UK are going to work with a community for a long weekend in 2013 when the teams will open up their businesses and attempt to sell to real customers. Teams will be judged on a combination of performance factors, including profits, consumer interest and satisfaction, unit design and overall team working. Local retailers in the competition area will join project judges and mentors to form the finals judging group.
Neighbourhood News was a £50,000 competition which launched in January 2013 with the aim of improving local news reporting. The Trust made £10,000 available to five Carnegie Partner organisations during 2013-14. The funding was available to five partners, to each deliver a local news project in a clearly defined geographic area. Projects could cover a new area of content, work with new news gathering partners, or develop new platforms to deliver news.
Highlights From The Trust’s Work In 2013
A Report Of The Commission’s Edinburgh Meeting
As part of our centenary celebrations, the Carnegie UK Trust, with the support of the University of Edinburgh, funded New York University to provide the secretariat to a high profile Global Citizenship Commission. The Commission will re-examine the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and draft a report which will suggest revisions and explore ways of renewing the Declaration for the 21st century.
The inaugural meeting of the Commission took place in Edinburgh, followed by an interactive, high profile, public-facing event between the Commissioners and the general public. This summary of the inaugural meeting outlines the work of the Commission on the issue of so-called missing rights, a mechanism for upholding the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the role of global institutions, and the potential for the Universal Declaration to coalesce a global ethic.
Findings From The Carnegie UK Trust’s Neighbourhood News Initiative
Over the past two years the Carnegie UK Trust’s Neighbourhood News initiative has supported five leading local news projects with £10,000 each to deliver community news in new and innovative ways. The Trust’s new policy summary draws on key findings from Neighbourhood News and sets out a new agenda for the future of local news in the UK. The policy summary provides 11 recommendations for how government, regulators, funders and other local news providers can support community-led local news.
How Can Public Libraries Improve Local Economies?
“Beyond Books” is the final report from the Trust’s work on Enterprising Libraries. It draws on learning from four local projects in England and Wales that explored creative ways of encouraging enterprise and digital skills development. The report outlines success factors, common challenges and recommendations for library services, professional organisations and national bodies involved with public libraries, and government. The recommendations include developing mechanisms for sharing good practice and innovation, and developing training for library staff around partnership working, collaboration, innovation and networking.
Learning From The Carnegie Prize For Design And Wellbeing
The places that we live in have a fundamental impact on our wellbeing. Sadly there is a strong social and economic gradient in the quality of our local environment. We don’t all have the good fortune to live in well-designed, quality environments.
The most successful public spaces are those that people play a role in designing and shaping and that offer continued opportunities for involvement. How can we ensure that more communities have access to well-designed public spaces that they have shaped? This summary report makes the case for well designed, community led public spaces contribute to community and individual wellbeing and drawing on the experiences of our winners and sets out 5 actions that policymakers and practitioners can take to support the development of ‘places that love people’.
The Search For 900 Historic Playing Fields
In the 1920s and 30s the Carnegie UK Trust gave grants of over £200,000 to help establish 900 playing fields across the UK and Ireland. But no central record of these fields were kept. Download this report to read about the UK’s Carnegie Playing Fields and find out more about our new pilot project, which has found 14 ‘lost’ Carnegie Playing Fields.
Our new #FieldFinders campaign is encouraging local communities to try and find their own Carnegie Playing Field. There are improvement grants of £5,000 to be won.
What Do People Want From Public Services?
This research briefing summarises and provides some analysis of key results from an ICM online poll commissioned by the Trust and conducted between 7-9th January 2015 . Our data shows that people want more control over the public services that they receive and that 32% of people could be persuaded to vote for a political party that offers them more control over their public services.
Please click on the image to download the briefing. You can also access our infographic.
Our results demonstrate that there is an appetite for more enabling forms of government.
The Carnegie Roundtable on Measuring Wellbeing in Northern Ireland which reported in 2015 contributed to the development of the wellbeing outcomes approach in the draft Programme for Government. The Trust is keen to continue our work in Northern Ireland and we believe that working with stakeholders at local government level presents a significant opportunity to support them to bridge the gap between the aspirations for Northern Ireland and the outcomes for local people.
After an Expression of Interest process, the Trust’s new project will now offer financial and in-kind support for the Community Planning Partnerships working in the following local authority areas:
Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon Borough Council;
Derry City and Strabane District Council; and
Lisburn and Castlereagh City Council.
The project will support the Community Planning Partnerships to overcome challenges in implementing their Community Plan which they identified as a priority in the project’s Expression of Interest process. The participants will share the learning from the project with the other Community Planning Partnerships to help improve local wellbeing outcomes across Northern Ireland. More information on the project is available in our project leaflet.
The Trust has also developed an Embedding Wellbeing support network to harness the enthusiasm and expertise of stakeholders who are supportive of the project, for project participants and the wider Community Planning Partnerships across Northern Ireland to utilise throughout the duration of the programme.
Who Is Digitally Excluded, Why And What Can We do About It?
In 2013 the Trust published our popular report Across the Divide, which examined digital exclusion in Glasgow. This new research, produced in partnership with Ipsos MORI, examines the same issues in Dumfries and Kirkcaldy – looking at the barriers to digital participation and how these can be best addressed.
Towards a Wellbeing Framework: Background Report
Background To The Recommendations Of The Carnegie Roundtable On Measuring Wellbeing In Northern Ireland
In 2014, the Carnegie UK Trust convened a Carnegie Roundtable on Measuring Wellbeing in Northern Ireland to explore how the concept of wellbeing can be used to promote social change. After learning from the good practice of many in Northern Ireland and beyond, the Roundtable believes that the time is right to develop a ‘wellbeing framework’ to guide and support the work of all public services in Northern Ireland. The Roundtable’s background report sets out the Roundtable’s deliberations, the seven steps it has identified for developing a wellbeing framework, and ten recommendations in order to implement these steps and to introduce a new, innovative way of delivering public services in Northern Ireland.
A 5-Point Plan To Support Youth Enterprise
The Carnegie UK Trust has a 100 year history of empowering young people and supporting access to high-quality education and projects which help young people to develop their skills and improve their employability. The Trust’s new position paper on enterprise demonstrates how access to high-quality enterprise education and entrepreneurial learning has the potential to improve students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards self-employment which can create economic activity and jobs, and highlights examples of good practice from across the UK and Ireland.
How Can We Tackle The Credit Poverty Premium?
“How to provide access to more affordable credit for citizens is a long-standing, complex public policy issue. This discussion paper by the Trust, led by Carnegie Associate Niall Alexander, highlights that we need a much better understanding of credit markets if we are to find the right solutions and calls for a wider public debate on this vitally important issue.
Lessons From Local News Pioneers
To coincide with the official launch of Local Web List, a revamped directory of hyperlocal news providers across the UK and Ireland, the Carnegie UK Trust has published a new case study report of five innovative hyperlocals to add to the evidence base about the types of activities that hyperlocals are undertaking and the impact they deliver for citizens. The report seeks to help inspire those who are considering starting a hyperlocal news group or seeking to expand their organisation’s activities; and to demonstrate the success of hyperlocal practitioners in bringing a greater plurality of voices to the UK journalism sector.
Public libraries are a valued and trusted resource at the heart of communities. They foster learning and social, cultural and economic wellbeing.
‘Shining a Light’ is the Trust’s unique set of publications showing how people in England, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales use public libraries and what they think of them. It is the only research on public libraries that enables comparisons to be drawn between the jurisdictions of the UK and Ireland.
The publications provide data about levels of use, frequency of library use, people’s attitude to public libraries and what people say would encourage them to make more use of libraries. The research is based on over 10,000 interviews conducted across 2011 and 2016 and was carried out by Ipsos MORI for the Carnegie UK Trust.
Libraries cannot stand still in a changing world and many are exploring different ways of working and re-imagining the range of functions they can fulfil. The Trust supports the future for libraries and is currently supporting leadership and innovation in public libraries through Carnegie Library Lab. We are also working in partnership with Wellcome to deliver Engaging Libraries – a programme to enable public libraries to experiment with public engagement on health and wellbeing issues. We have also developed an advocacy resource showcasing libraries’ contribution to wellbeing and key policy areas, and we played a leading role in the development of the first National Strategy for Public Libraries in Scotland.
At a national level, towns have been neglected. They have suffered either from a lack of investment or lack of attention from national and devolved governments for a long time. The towns that saw their traditional economic bases disappear in the 1980s still persist as major locations of disadvantage. The abolition of the regional development agencies and the national regeneration agency (English Partnerships) in 2010 curtailed funding to English regions and blocked an important channel of communication into Whitehall.
Searching for Space
As the home to millions of citizens, businesses, and service providers, towns are particularly important places across the UK and Ireland. However, our report, Searching for Space, finds that there is a policy gap at the towns level. Across the jurisdictions, there are well-developed policies designed to progress cities and rural hinterlands, and often powerful groups working on their behalf. The report finds that towns are a neglected area of public policy – they are rarely taken as the basis for formal policymaking, or have the policy levers available to them to influence their fortunes.
Opportunities for towns
Towns still face challenges in being represented in policy and gaining access to appropriate development funding. This is critical with the opportunities presented by upcoming structural changes where the voice of towns needs to be heard.
Funds for towns as a whole, or regions of towns, have been lacking, but there are developments that we would like to see become opportunities – such as the Shared Prosperity Fund, Local Industrial Strategies, and in England the Stronger Towns Fund and the Future High Street Fund
We are working with other organisations to support towns and regional bodies to develop strategies to improve the wellbeing of their places. Towns will thrive if we focus on developing community wellbeing, where neighbourhoods can live well together, now, and in the future.
Young people are not digital natives. Those who are vulnerable, particularly those at points of transition in their life (unemployed, homeless, in care, in secure accommodation, excluded from mainstream education, seeking asylum) are most at risk of slipping through the net and falling outside the digital mainstream.
The #NotWithoutMe programme has been established to challenge digital exclusion for vulnerable young people and advocate for further digital support for young people across the UK and Ireland.
A New Agenda For UK Towns
Millions of people in the UK and Ireland live in medium-sized towns. Our towns are critical to wellbeing. Based on our wide variety of policy and practice work to date, Time for Towns sets out key asks for all those interested and working in town socioeconomic development across the UK and Ireland.
Global Lessons On Improving Town Fortunes
The places where we live have a significant impact on our social, economic, environmental and democratic wellbeing. In the UK and Ireland, where millions of us live in small and medium-sized towns, the health of our towns is of critical importance to the wellbeing of many.
This report sets out a clear policy framework for understanding and developing a narrative about how the fortunes of a town might be transformed, highlighting key lessons and themes that appear across the eight international case studies, focusing on the most salient points for policymakers and practitioners in the UK.
The question of how to make affordable credit available to people across the UK has long been a highly complex and contested public policy issue.
Our Affordable Credit project is seeking to bring new solutions to this area with a focus on identifying alternative options to the commercial high cost credit market.
We have established an Affordable Credit Action Group to oversee work on the recommendations set out in the Gateway to Affordable Credit report. The Group is chaired by the Very Reverend Dr John Chalmers, former Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Action Group members are: Allison Barnes, Scotland Manager, Money and Pensions Service; Sharon Bell, Head, StepChange Scotland; Jamie Black, Consumer and Community Affairs Manager, RBS; Maggie Craig, Head of Scotland office, Financial Conduct Authority; Peter Kelly, Director, Poverty Alliance; Yvonne MacDermid, Chief Executive, Money Advice Scotland; Louise Macdonald, CEO, Young Scot; Professor John McKendrick, Scottish Poverty and Inequality Research Unit (SPIRU), Glasgow Caledonian University; Stephen Pearson, Former Head of External Projects, Virgin Money; Karen Grieve, Scottish Government; and Douglas White, Head of Advocacy, Carnegie UK Trust. Rachel Heydecker, Policy and Development Officer, Carnegie UK Trust, is Secretariat to the Group.
Niall Alexander has joined the Carnegie UK Trust as an Associate to help develop and implement the recommendations in the Gateway to Affordable Credit report. Niall will support the Action Group with technical and evidence-based work designed to overcome some of the cross-cutting, structural issues that inhibit the expansion of affordable credit.
Pop Ups To Imagine And Create Your Own Future Place
TestTown is an initiative designed to support emerging town centre and high street entrepreneurs. Created and managed by Carnegie UK Trust from 2013-2016, TestTown events have been held in 19 towns and city districts across the UK and Ireland with 280 entrepreneurs graduating through a TestTown development week.
The idea is simple, towns and education providers make available their vacant spaces, training and support to young businesses to test out their ideas in pop-up shops in town centres. In return, young businesses offer their talent, creativity and energy to allow towns to test future high street and town centre solutions.
We want as many emerging emerging town centre and high street entrepreneurs to be given this opportunity so we have developed and created this FREE ‘Build Your Own TestTown’ portal and manual.
We hope that the advice, check-lists, stories and resources will encourage towns to have a go at running a TestTown event and see what great talent can do in the UK and Ireland when given a chance.
How Can Kindness Improve Our Wellbeing?
Evidence consistently shows that positive relationships and kindness are at the heart of our wellbeing. In this discussion paper Carnegie Associate Zeo Ferguson starts a process to engage directly with people who want to inject kindness into their work and communities. The paper explores evidence concerning the impact of everyday relationships and kindness on wellbeing for society as well as individuals. It also addresses the issues of community empowerment and develops a theory of change. The project aim is to learn with communities and organisations to develop practical approaches to encourage kinder communities.
How does work affect our quality of life?
In Work and Wellbeing: Exploring Data in Inequalities, we analyse how changing workplace trends are impacting on the quality of life for employees across the UK. We also ask how different aspects of work may fit together to make for ‘fulfilling work.’ Tackling core issues like sufficient pay and hours to cover the cost of living is essential. But the impact of financial security, opportunities for training and progression and a social, flexible workplace, also needs to be better understood if work is to improve, rather than damage, wellbeing.
Understanding And Tackling The Digital Divide
Addressing the digital divide is one of the great social challenges of our age. The Role of Digital Exclusion in Social Exclusion presents detailed statistical analysis by Ipsos MORI to examine the link between being offline and other forms of social deprivation. Read the report and our policy summary and get in touch to tell us how the findings relate to your own experience and knowledge of digital and social exclusion.
Twin Towns UK is a domestic twinning scheme, which takes a fresh approach to the well-established ‘twinning’ concept by pairing towns across the UK with similar characteristics or socio-economic challenges, to consider how to make positive change happen in their communities.
Improving towns includes, but is about far more than, improving the retail offering on the high street. It is about supporting people to come together and make the changes they know their local places need.
From September 2017 until November 2018, 3 twinning partnerships worked together to jointly develop projects that tackle priorities in their towns, supported by the knowledge and experience of their twins. A mix of organisations lead the partnerships including a Community Development Trust, a Business Improvement District, and a Chamber of Commerce. The project enabled exchange of information across the UK, promoting collaborative and co-operative programmes at grass roots level between towns. The 3 partnerships were:
Broughshane in Northern Ireland & Wooler in England
Whitburn in Scotland & Oswaldtwistle in England
Merthyr Tydfil in Wales and North Shields in England.
Towns have gained from the twinning through:
direct improvements in their digital offering with increased marketing and social media activity.
opportunities for individuals to share learning and improve skills, knowledge and understanding.
new cycle routes, walking lunches, town trails and heritage trails.
In one town (Mertyr Tydfill) speciality Christmas and Pop Up Vegan markets trialled; with the Vegan market generating a 20% increase in shopping centre footfall.
Leveraging other funding to refurbish Harrison Hall in Whitburn, which is now open and being used by a variety of community groups.
Town clean ups, with wide community involvement that are anticipated to become regular events.
The final report of Twin Towns can be found here.
Understanding And Tackling The Digital Divide
Addressing the digital divide is one of the great social challenges of our age. Digital Participation and Social Justice in Scotland examines the link between being offline and other forms of social deprivation. Drawing on detailed statistical analysis by Ipsos MORI, tells us who is offline, why and what we can do about it. Read the report and get in touch to tell us how the findings relate to your own experience and knowledge of digital and social exclusion.
Helping Cities And Regions To Measure Progress And Prioritise Resources
Cities and regions face a particular set of challenges when they develop wellbeing frameworks. In partnership with the OECD Regional Development Policy Division, Carnegie Associate Pippa Coutts has developed straightforward guidance for cities and regions that wants to develop their own wellbeing frameworks to measure progress and prioritise precious resources.
Does The Draft Programme For Government In Northern Ireland Deliver For Citizen Wellbeing?
Our report explores the potential for the NI Executive to place wellbeing at the heart of its work through the new Programme for Government.
The Roundtable reconvened in July 2016 to explore further how the NI Executive can better understand social progress and mechanisms to improve wellbeing. The report endorses the NI Executive Programme for Government and its commitment to improving wellbeing through an outcomes-based approach to governance. The briefing includes details of the response submitted to the NI Executive consultation on its outcomes, measures and indicators.
Learning From Innovative Projects That Give Individuals And Communities More Control
Our new report introduces the learning from 6 innovative projects which show the current ‘state of play’ of the Enabling State. The projects were the winners of our Enabling State Challenge.
The overall picture gathered supports that the Enabling State approach is gathering momentum, due to a combination of reduced budgets and a desire to work differently to improve people’s lives. However, we continue to see two models running in parallel, with innovations coming up against challenges of rules and regulations designed for a more traditional model of public services.
Kindness is at the very heart of our wellbeing. In 2016 and 2017, with the support of JRF, we worked with seven organisations to test what, if anything, could be done to encourage kinder communities. We heard powerful examples of where everyday relationships support the wellbeing of individuals and communities – some of which you can hear about in the first of our short films, ‘The Place of Kindness’. But we also learnt that there are major factors that inhibit kindness and relationships, both in individuals and organisations.
We then worked with Carnegie Fellow, Julia Unwin CBE, to examine the role of kindness in public policy. Her report, Kindness, emotions and human relationships: The blind spot in public policy, argues that, while there have been very good reasons for keeping kindness separate from public policy, the major challenges of our time demand an approach that is more centred on relationships; and with technology and artificial intelligence transforming the way we do things, it is imperative that public policy places equal weight on emotional intelligence.
In 2018, we published findings from the first ever quantitative survey on experiences of kindness in communities and public services. The data series, Quantifying kindness, public engagement and place, presents a reassuring and yet complex picture across the UK and Ireland, with generally high levels of kindness but at the same time variations in experiences between jurisdictions and different social groups.
Most recently, the Trust has been coordinating a Kindness Innovation Network and working in partnership with North Ayrshire Council to develop and test ideas to embed kindness in communities, organisations and services. Our new report, The Practice of Kindness, and accompanying short film bring together learning on the practical implementation of kindness, and also highlight challenges relating to our attitudes towards risk, professionalism and performance management. Throughout the rest of 2019 we will continue our partnership with North Ayrshire Council to further explore the challenges and complexities of kindness as an organisational value.
How Can Academics And The Third Sector Work Together To Influence Policy And Practice
In this report Carnegie Fellow Professor Mark Shucksmith argues that to make an impact on social policy universities must work more closely with civil society. The report: explores the different approaches of both sectors to knowledge and evidence; investigates the obstacles and challenges to collaboration; highlights examples of successful interactions; and makes a series of recommendations to those in the third sector, academia and the research funding councils as to how more positive collaboration can be encouraged.
Fife And The Forth Road Bridge Closure
The closure of the Forth Road Bridge in December 2015 temporarily broke the link between residents in Fife and socioeconomic opportunities in Edinburgh and beyond.
The Carnegie UK Trust commissioned a representative poll with 500 residents in Fife, conducted an online survey with 63 Fife-based businesses, and collected other data sources to publish a new short report on the impact of the closure on how residents in Fife worked, travelled, consumed goods and services, and pursued leisure activities during this period, and the impact on local businesses as traders and employers.
The report provides insight into the opportunities available to develop more prosperous and resilient town communities across the UK.
The Final Report Of The Affordable Credit Working Group
This report outlines how to make cheaper, small, short-term loans available to disadvantaged communities across Scotland. The report sets out eighteen recommendations focussed on leadership, partnership, and development and investment. The recommendations are designed to achieve the following outcome statement:
All citizens in Scotland, wherever they live, have access to excellent forms of community lending which helps them to reduce the cost of borrowing and supports their financial inclusion, promotes fairness and reduces inequality.
The Living Wage provides one mechanism through which some workers can improve their experience of work through an acceptable, increased minimum level of pay. In the UK as a whole, there are almost 5000 accredited employers.
‘Making Living Wage Places’ is an innovative scheme supported by the Trust, led by the Living Wage Foundation and the Poverty Alliance in Scotland, to establish and pilot a series of Living Wage regions, cities, towns, zones and buildings across the UK, through harnessing the power of local employers, institutions, communities, consumers and campaigners to help grow the Living Wage movement and lift more people out of low pay.
Living Wage Places: A toolkit on tackling low pay by celebrating local action provides valuable, practical insights for places of all size across the UK to begin their own Living Wage Place journey. The Toolkit includes a range of case studies, advice and step-by-step guidence.
Kindness is at the very heart of our wellbeing. With the support of JRF, over the past nine months we have been working with seven organisations to test what, if anything, could be done to encourage kinder communities, exploring ideas around the importance of places and opportunities to connect, and the intrinsic values underpinning our interactions and relationships.
This report by Carnegie Associate Zoë Ferguson sets out what we have learnt, highlighting powerful examples of where kindness and everyday relationships can affect change and support the wellbeing of individuals and communities. You can hear about some of these in our film. But there are major factors that get in the way of engaging and encouraging kindness both in individuals and organisations, including real and imagined rules relating to risk; funders and policy makers valuing the formal and organisational over the informal and individual; and modern definitions of professionalism and good leadership crowding out everyday kindness and intuitive human interactions.
Privacy is essential to freedom of expression and democracy. The widespread nature of digital technology capable of linking, correlating and aggregating vast amounts of data has led to concern that many citizens are not well informed about how, when and why their data is used and are not able to make empowered decisions or choices in this area.
Public libraries have played an essential role in championing access to information and supporting the development of digital skills. The Carnegie UK Trust is working with the CILIP The Library and Information Association to explore how public libraries can help individuals make informed decisions about their online privacy and security as they seek to maximise the benefits of the online world.
Following a cross-sector and international study trip to New York in order to scope best practice in the area of public libraries and online data privacy, the Trust has developed the following work streams on online data privacy:
Evidence review: We have worked with Ipsos MORI Scotland to publish Online Data Privacy from Attitudes to Action, looking at UK public attitudes and behaviour in relation to online data privacy.
Sharing learning: The Trust published a blog series by study trip participants which reflects key learnings, themes and points of interest from the trip.
Privacy guide for public libraries: We have worked with Newcastle Libraries and CILIP to develop Leading the Way – a guide to privacy for public library staff.
To see the study trip seminar ‘Privacy in a Digital Age’, with acclaimed security technologist Bruce Schneier, please click here.
As both the public and private sector are challenged to keep up to date with the needs and wants of their user groups, there is an increased need for organisations to examine their methods for creating and delivering new products.
The library service has taken this challenge head on and hosted the Future Libraries Product Forge Hackathon to re-imagine its role and functions: working in different ways in order to be sustainable and relevant.
This report summarises the learnings of the Future Libraries Product Forge, examines the value of hackathons for wider public services and examines the delivery model of a hackathon as a viable approach for producing new services.
Public sector contracts awarded for goods and services represent billions of pounds of investment each year. Traditional procurement procedures have sought best value for the public purse, but procurement power might also be used to enhance the quality of work in our communities. For example, by awarding procurement contracts to organisations committed to practices that deliver more fulfilling work – such as those who pay a Living Wage, or who can demonstrate progressive and inclusive hiring and workplace policies. However, despite widespread interest and support for this idea, public bodies face a range of strategic, practical and legal considerations to implement effective ‘good work procurement’ strategies.
Since 2017, the Trust has been working with academic partners in the North East of England, to explore how the potential of using public sector procurement powers to encourage ‘good work’ might be realised.
The report Making Procurement Work for All showcased qualitative research with stakeholders in the North East of England carried out by the Institute of Local Governance at Durham University, exploring the current and potential use of ‘good work procurement’ in the region.
Our Guide to Good Work Procurement is a bite-sized guide intended to support public sector organisations looking to use their powers of procurement to promote better work. Written by Carnegie Associates Dr Deborah Harrison and Philip Edwards, it is based on regional development work in the North East of England as well as learning from national examples.
The Trust will continue its work supporting the development and implementation of Good Work Procurement Strategies, in the North East region and nationally across the UK, in 2020. We would like to hear from organisations around the UK engaging with and advancing the ideas in this Guide, or who wish to share ideas from their own practice.
This report gives an accessible overview of both the big picture and detailed findings regarding library use and attitudes towards public libraries 2011-2016 across England, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The data was collected by Ipsos Mori on behalf of the Carnegie UK Trust in two omnibus polls involving a total of 10,000 people. The polls were conducted over the period June – September 2016 and August-October 2011.
This report outlines how public libraries can continue to contribute to government policy goals and improve people’s wellbeing for many years in the future. The lessons are drawn from research we conducted into library use and attitudes towards library across the UK and Ireland 2011-2016, and from the current context in which public libraries operate.
Fairness Commissions from Shetland to Southampton: the Role of Fairness Commissions in the Enabling State
Over the past six years, Fairness Commissions have been established in localities across Great Britain to examine and develop approaches designed to tackle poverty and inequality in their communities. This report, arising from a round table discussion with Fairness Commission and policy representatives from around the UK, reflects on Fairness Commissions as a model for social change at a local level, and asks how they might support greater civic wellbeing in a more enabling state.
As public services face increasing challenges in the face of economic, social and demographic pressures how do we improve lives effectively? Evidence informed policy and practice will be key.
Stimulated by debates at a roundtable discussion with senior stakeholders from academia, the third sector and government this paper examines the particular public policy context in Scotland and implications for evidence use and generation. It argues that cross sectoral stakeholders in Scotland have the opportunity to develop an expertise on evidence effective participative policy making and that there is much to share and learn across borders where similar shifts in policy are taking place.
On Wednesday 28 September 2016, politicians and nearly 100 stakeholders from the public, private and third sectors came together at Girdwood Community Hub in Belfast to consider how the Northern Ireland Executive can deliver outcomes-based government to support citizen wellbeing.
Sir John Elvidge became a Trustee of the Carnegie UK Trust in May 2014 and became Chair in May 2017. He has also been Chair of Edinburgh Airport Ltd since 2012, Chair of the Advisory Board for the University of Glasgow’s Policy Scotland Institute since 2012, Chair of the Traverse Theatre since 2014 and Chair of the David Hume Institute since 2015.
He was Permanent Secretary to the Scottish Government from 2003 to 2010. He had previously worked in the Cabinet Office and the Scottish Office and works in an advisory role with the OECD and with several governments in Europe, China and North America. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, an Adjunct Professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University and works with the University of Oxford on programmes for leadership and public policy for overseas governments. Sir John was appointed as a Carnegie Fellow on the Enabling State project in the summer of 2012 and has led our work in this area.
Not all young people have the basic digital skills needed to prosper in our online world. A digital world for all? explores the issues of digital exclusion amongst vulnerable young people. The #NotWithoutMe programme challenges the assumption that young people are ‘digital natives’ and have basic digital skills or access to learning opportunities. The report’s main findings are drawn from four, year-long pilot projects run across the UK (two based in England, one in Scotland and one in Northern Ireland). The report provides a range of recommendations to help further develop innovative practice and policy interventions in this area.
As the home to millions of citizens, businesses, and service providers, towns are particularly important places across the UK and Ireland. However, our report Searching for Space: What place for towns in public policy? finds that there is a policy gap at the towns level. Across the jurisdictions, there are well-developed policies designed to progress cities and rural hinterlands, and often powerful groups working on their behalf. At the same time, policies are routinely designed to support the development of communities, with no regard to the outcomes experienced by the wider town in which they sit. The report finds that towns are a neglected area of public policy – they are rarely taken as the basis for formal policymaking, or have the policy levers available to them to influence their fortunes.
Measuring good work matters.
The UK current performs strongly on job creation, with each record low unemployment statistic celebrated in the national media. But why do we not have any similar measures for understanding quality of work and how we can make work better?
The Carnegie UK Trust-RSA Working Group on Measuring Job Quality has brought together representatives from across trade unions, industry, charities and academia to consider the practical challenges of implementing national job quality measurement in the UK. Responding directly to the recommendation of Matthew Taylor’s Modern Employment Review and the ambition of the UK Government’s Good Work Plan, the report presents a measurement framework for tracking progress towards the outcome of good work for all.
Social media has changed the landscape of communication for millions across the globe. The benefits that social networks can bring are plentiful and well documented, but the harm that many people have suffered through abusive or negative engagement with other users on these platforms, or through the impact of design choices that shape or influence the content they view, can be troubling.
Since early 2018, Professor Lorna Woods and William Perrin have been working on a public policy proposal to improve the safety of users of internet services in the United Kingdom. Drawing on well-established concepts and legislation, they propose a statutory duty of care backed by an independent regulator, with measuring, reporting and transparency obligations.
This work seeks to most effectively balance the competing tensions of reducing harm, maintaining free speech, innovation, democratic oversight, corporate risk aversion and political intervention.
There is growing recognition of the importance of kindness and relationships for societal wellbeing. But talking about kindness does not fit easily within the rational lexicon of public policy. The Trust was delighted that Julia Unwin CBE accepted our invitation to become a Carnegie Fellow; and over the course of the last two years we have been exploring the complexity and contradictions of kindness and public policy through a series of roundtables and events.
Julia’s report, Kindness, emotions and human relationships: The blind spot in public policy, brings together our learning from these discussions. It argues that there have been very good reasons for keeping kindness separate from public policy; but that the great public policy challenges of our time demand an approach that is more centred on relationships; and, with technology and artificial intelligence transforming the way we do things, it is imperative that we focus equally on our emotional intelligence.
Quantifying kindness, public engagement and place presents findings from the first ever quantitative survey on kindness in communities and public services. The data reveals a reassuring and yet complex picture of kindness in the UK and Ireland, with generally high levels of kindness reported, but at the same time variations in experiences between jurisdictions and across social groups.
The research also sheds light on how people describe the place they live in, revealing that two in five people in the UK self-identify as living in a town; and provides insights into people’s sense of control over public services, and how they per